- 1945 - 1949 - Ministerstwu Obrony Narodowej,
- 1949 - 1954 - Ministerstwu Bezpieczeństwa Publicznego,
- 1954 - 1965 - Ministerstwu Spraw Wewnętrznych,
- 1965 - 1971/72 - Ministerstwu Obrony Narodowej,
- 1971/72 - 1990 - Ministerstwu Spraw Wewnętrznych.
Border Protection Troops
After the end of WWII, the protection of the border was initially delegated to the units of the Polish Army. According to the order of the Commander-in-Chief of the Polish Army issued on 27 May 1945, indicated tactical units of the 2 nd Army had to finish regrouping from the territory of Czechoslovakia and populate the border on the Odra and the Bystrzyca, and then, going further east, the Odra and the Nysa Łużycka. Since that time, 10 June was celebrated symbolically as the BPT’s Day.
The Border Protection Troops were create three months later, on 13 September 1945, following order No. 254/Ozg. of the Commander-in-Chief of the Polish Army. Following the order, the units formerly designated for protection of the state border were transformed into permanent structures of BPT, subordinated to the Ministry of National Defense. The highest body was the Department of BPT (chief – Col (Gen) Gwidon Czerwiński ) , reporting to the I Deputy Minister, Gen Wsiewołod Strażewski. At the Commands of military districts, BPT Bureaus were created, and BPT Divisions were subordinated to them, taking, in turn, control over border sections and border control points. On 28 October 1945, border crossing control points were established on the borders.
In years 1945 - 1990, BCP was subject to the following ministries:
- 1945 - 1949 – Ministry of National Defense,
- 1949 - 1954 – Ministry of Public Security,
- 1954 - 1965 – Ministry of Interior,
- 1965 - 1971/72 – Ministry of National Defense,
- 1971/72 - 1990 – Ministry of Interior.
The main tasks of BPT included prevention, counteraction and fighting border crime, providing security and public order at the borderline, supervision over the observance of regulations concerning the defense of state border relating to the border zone and the borderline, supervision over the observance of regulations in force on Polish internal waters and territorial sea by all ships, and also performing some tasks belonging to the competence of the customs duty administration. The total length of the borders of the People’s Republic of Poland was: 3538 km.
Since the seventies until the end of its existence the Border Protection Troops were organized according to military structures. They consisted of: BPT Command (Warsaw) and 11 Brigades: Kashubian (Gdańsk), Baltic (Koszalin), Pomeranian (Szcecin), Lubuski (Krosno Odrzańskie), Lusatian (Lubań Śląski), Sudete (Kłodzko), Upper Silesian (gliwice), Carpathian (Nowy Sącz), Bieszczadzki (Przemyśl), Bug (Chełm), Podlachian-Masurian (Białystok). The protection of territorial waters was provided by the Marine Border Ships Brigade ( Gdańsk), included in the structure of the Navy (3 Squadrons of BS: Kashubian - Gdańsk-Westerplatte, Baltic – Kołobrzeg, and Pomeranian – Świnoujście).
The training of personnel was carried out by the BPT Training Center consisting of: branch of the Mechanized Forces Military Academy – specialty BPT, BPT Warrant Officers School, BPT Non-commissioned Officers Vocational School and other courses. Within some brigades, there were non-commissioned officers’ schools and training centers for junior specialists: communication and radiolocation – in Koszali, cooks – in Szczecin, team commanders – in Kłodzko, service dog training – Żarka on Nysa. Cultural education was provided by the Stage Group "Granica" (Border) at the BPT Command.
The organization system of BPT remained in that form until the times of system transformation in the years of 1989/90. By the force of law of 12 October 1990 on Border Guard, the existing structures of the Border Protection Troops were transformed into a new formation, referring to the pre-war Border Guard. It took place on 16 May 1991. Since then, 16 May is celebrated as the BG Day.